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Website promoting production and export of flowers, fruits and vegetables of Vietnam



The production and export of vegetables in Vietnam


1.1. The production of vegetables

1.1.1. Cultivating area, productivity, and output:

By the end of 2005, the total area under vegetables cultivation had reached 635,800 hectares, with a production of 9,640,300 metric tons; thus, increased by 175,500 hectares ( 3.61% on annual basis), and by 3,071,500 metric tons (7.55% on annual basis).

Table 1.1. Vegetables cultivating Area in Vietnam in the period of 1999 and 2005



Cultivating Area (1,000 ha)

Productivity (100kg/ha)

Output (1,000 metric tons)







Whole Country








The Red River Delta








Northern Midlands and Highlands








Northern Centrals








Coastal Southern Centrals








Tay Nguyen (Central Highlands)








South-Eastern Area








The Mekong River Delta







Among the seven mentioned, the Red River Delta makes up the most around 24.9% in cultivating area and 29.6% in output of vegetables of the whole country; the second is The Mekong River Delta, with the rates of 25.9% and 28.3% respectively.

Many safety vegetables cultivating areas have shaped, bringing cultivators high income and meeting customers’ growing demand of safety vegetables. Such areas are viewed on scaling and investment as in Ha Noi, Hai Phong (An Lao), Ho Chi Minh City, Lam Dong (Da Lat)…

An estimate from the Institute for Vegetables and Fruits (IVF) shows that a number of kinds of vegetables and fruits like tomato, cucumber, bean, maize,… has been oriented to export in recent years. The area under cultivation becomes larger and larger, yielding more and more; goods vegetables makes up a high ratio of the output.

At present, vegetables cultivation is done by the two modes: self-sufficiency and goods production. The second mode is applied in the areas below:

- Monocultivating areas which are on the outskirts of cities and highly populated zones provide mainly for non- agro customers with nearly 80 kinds of vegetables (15 out of those kinds make the most of total output). Land using coefficient is rated high, 3 – 4 growing seasons a year, but cultivators’ technique is not good enough to keep up with requirements on safety and environment.

- Multicultivating areas which are large, yield huge outputs and where vegetables and rice are changeably cultivated provide largely for customers as well as for processing industry and export.

- High-tech vegetables cultivation has taken initial steps, with anti-insect curtain and net, plastic house, nutritive membrane, aqua-cultivating method, and multiplying and producing rare species by Israeli glasshouse method.

1.1.2. Concentrated goods vegetables areas:

- The North

+ Ha Noi’s vegetables cultivation: in 2005, the total area under cultivation was equivalent to 8,100 hectares (i.e. 3,000 hectares, with the land using coefficient of 2.7), the productivity was 18,620 kilograms per hectare, and the total output was 150,800 metric tons.

There were various kinds of vegetables, especially for leaf bearing kinds of vegetables like spinach, lettuce, colza, cabbage,…making up 70 – 80% of the total cultivating area, yielding high total output and high ratio of goods vegetables as well.

Nevertheless, traditional cultivating method which is applied at present does not meet quality criteria. Relevant authorities of Hanoi have decided to shape up more and more safety vegetables cultivating areas around the city for the benefit of customers, cultivators, and environment. Only 20 – 25% out of the total cultivating area is now under safety vegetables cultivation, shaping up in several districts like Dong Anh, Gia Lam, Thanh Tri, and meet about 15 – 20% the city‘s demand.

Projects for modern cultivation of vegetables are underway like the high – quality vegetables and flowers combination model in Tu Liem district (16 hectares and 24 billion Dong investment), high – tech cultivation model in Nam Hong (30 hectares) and in Kim Son (15 hectares). There are 37 cooperatives engaged in safety vegetables cultivation around the city, shaping up in Dong Anh, Soc Son,Tu Liem,...Several of them have meeting requirements on production management, trademark, and distribution network and therefore have been granted with the Safety Vegetables Production Certificate.

+ Hundreds of hectares in Nam Sach, Binh Giang, Kim Thanh (Hai Duong province) under monocultivation of carrot, onion, garlic, and watermelon brings in for 70 – 90 million Dongs per hectare on annual basis.

+ 400 – 500 hectare in Ly Nhan (Ha Nam province) under monocultivation of cucumber and tomato provides annually for processing workshops belonging to the Vegetables, Fruits, and Agro-produce Corporation (VFAC). VFAC bought more than 6,000 metric tons of agro-produce during the 2006 spring crop from 840 hectare cultivating area in provinces like Nam Dinh, Bac Giang, Thanh Hoa where VFAC had taken part in production organization. Of these 840 hectares, 274 hectares was for baby cucumber, 300 hectares for red pepper, 126 hectares for sweet maize, and 45 hectares for baby tomato.

+ There have been many monocultivaiting areas in Quynh Phu and Thai Thuy (Thai Binh province) where many kinds of export oriented vegetables are grown. For example, Onion, garlic, red pepper, potato are grown in Quynh Phu; cucumber, baby maize, lettuce are grown in Thai Thuy. Several other kinds of export-by-country oriented vegetables have been expanded like potato to Germany and Holland; red pepper to Taiwan, Korea Republic, and Japan; cabbage, pumpkin, French bean to China; sweet potato to Japan.

+ The Dien Truc bamboo which comes from China has been grown for shoot and sheath on the hillside area of Song Phuong commune, Dan Phuong district (Ha Tay province) where the soil is less fertile. This bamboo is economically appreciated as the shoot of it is hot on the market with price from 8,000 – 11,000 Dongs per kilogram, the sheath of it is used as material for hand made conical hat, and the trunk of it is used as chief material for bamboo mat. After a period of twelve months the tree will be available for harvest and the net income per hectare may reach 60 – 70 million Dongs.

- The Central

+ Export oriented vegetables production at Quynh Luu district (Nghe An province) has been boosted. During the winter and the summer- autumn crops, Farmers at Quynh Luong commune (Quynh Luu) daily carry about 30 – 45 metric tons of vegetables to the market. The commune has set up a webpage in order to facilitate the introduction and sale. In the year of 2005, the commune had exported to Holland around 600 metric tons of vegetables (including tomato, colza, cabbage, fennel, onion), increased by 100 metric tons compared to 2004.

- The South

+ High-tech vegetables cultivation at Ho Chi Minh City
The city has already 1,663 hectares under safety vegetables cultivation, with an annual production of about 30,000 metric tons. Yet, an area of 100 hectares in Cu Chi district is put under high-tech cultivation with application of aqua-cultivative method, tissue transplanting, and genetic technology, and so on.

+ Mushroom growing at Vinh Long province
Thanks to the tissue providing project launched under the Edible Mushroom Programme, 20 communes were provided with 139,590 meters of tissue (equivalent to seeding on an area of 634.5 hectares) for the winter-spring, summer-autumn, and autumn-winter crops. The productivity is from 1 – 1.4 kilograms of mushroom per meter of tissue and the total output may come between 139.6 – 195.4 metric tons; with prices ranging from 7,000 – 9,000 Dongs per kilogram, bringing in for 1.4 – 1.75 billion Dongs.

+ Vegetables cultivation at Tien Giang province
Tien Giang’s vegetable cultivating area has come up to 30,000 hectares, annually yields about 450,000 metric tons of vegetables and brings in for 150 billion Dongs. Safety vegetables areas have shaped up in communes like Than Cuu Nghia, Long An, Phuoc Thanh, Tan Hiep ( Chau Thanh district); Long Binh Dien, Binh Phan, Binh Phuc Nhat (Cho Gao district); Binh Nhi, Long Vinh (Go Cong Tay); My Phong, Tan My Chanh (My Tho city) and Long Hung ( Go Cong district). The 500 hectare safety vegetables project was approved by the People’s Committee of Tien Giang. It is expected that the area may be expanded to 1,000 hectares in the coming years.

+ Edible mushrooms growing area at Tan Phuoc district (Tien Giang province)
The area for edible mushroom is about 500 hectares, mainly at communes like Tan Hoa Tay, My Phuoc, Phuoc Lap, Thanh My, Tan Hoa Dong, and so on. Mushroom growing is technically easy, materially favored with available straw, and absorbs less investment. Mushroom prices range from 18,000 – 20,000 Dongs per kilogram, sometimes up to 25,000 Dongs.

+ Vegetables cultivation at Lam Dong province
By the end of 2005, the total cultivating area had reached 27.315 hectares, yielded 67,700 metric tons of vegetables (17,324 tons out of which was for export). There were a lot of kinds of vegetables and the quality was rated high. Of the total output, leaf bearing kinds of vegetables (like cabbage) made up from 55 – 60%; tuber and bulb bearing kinds of vegetables (like potato, carrot) made up from 20 – 25%; and fruit bearing kinds of vegetables (like tomato) made up from 10 – 12%.
At present, the area under safety vegetables cultivation is about 600 hectares. Modern cultivating models are applied, for example, pest net with or without the use of non-organic pesticides and fertilizers.

1.2. The consumption of vegetables

- At present, Vietnam has 60 vegetables processing workshops with annual capacity of 290,000 metric tons. Of that capacity, the State-owned make up 50%, the State-not-owned make up 16%, the foreign invested make up 34%, and households make up the rest.
On the whole, the processed amount is quite small and most of the output of vegetables is domestically consumed. 2005’s vegetables export value totaled at 235 million Dollars, mostly contributed by the processed vegetables. There were few kinds of export oriented vegetables like tomato, cucumber, maize, red pepper, watermelon, either processed ( dried, bottled, canned, salted, condensed, frozen) or not.
- The facts that the domestic consumption of vegetables is considered low and prices of vegetables fluctuate strongly on the output are taken as harmful to the stabilization of production of vegetables.
- Vegetables are perishable; but almost all of the large production zones have not got pre-processing facilities for freshly harvested vegetables.

1.3. The drawbacks to production of vegetables

- The master plan for vegetables production nationwide has not been clearly made out considering local ecological characteristics. That explains why localities found it difficult to work out long term strategies to develop both plants and cultivating area.
- Domestic production of vegetables has not met requirements on quantity and quality; as a result, we cannot secure both domestic and foreign markets as well.
- The foodstuff safety is always considered very important, especially for vegetables production. Although guidance on safety vegetables production has been given, it is hard to know whether the guidance may be followed or not. Thus, safety vegetables are sometimes “not safe enough” and cannot compete effectively on the market.
- The contracted production model has been applied but not widely Contracting parties are occasionally not strictly complied with what on the signed contract, particularly when market prices rise or fall.


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